Welcome to #icaoTRIP, ICAO’s Thirteenth Symposium and Exhibition on the ICAO Traveller Identification Programme being held in from 24 to 26 October 2017 in Montreal, Canada. The key point of the ICAO TRIP Strategy is a recognized need for a holistic and integrated approach to traveller identification management.
The Symposium will address the five elements of the ICAO TRIP Strategy, including machine readable travel documents (MRTDs) specifications and best practices for document issuance, identification management and related border security issues.
In line with UN Security Council Resolutions 2178 (2014) and 2309 (2016) that re-affirmed the importance of border controls to combat terrorism, the Symposium will provide an opportunity to enhance international cooperation and collaboration to address the threats faced by international civil aviation. This will be accomplished by promoting the global framework established by Annex 9 – Facilitation to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Accordingly, the theme of this year’s Symposium will highlight how to secure border integrity through border control management processes, including the implementation of an Advance Passenger Information (API) system.
ICAO recognizes the benefits of traveller identification management to aviation security and travel facilitation. ICAO’s mission is to contribute to the capacity of Member States, under the “No Country Left Behind” objective, to uniquely identify individuals by providing tools and knowledge to establish and confirm the identity of travellers.
ICAO will be joined by senior officials from related organizations to provide high-level perspectives on the opportunity that improved traveller identification presents to strengthen aviation security and travel facilitation.
Representatives from international organizations most closely involved with security and facilitation will provide updates on their initiatives and projects.
The roadmap aims to serve as guidance for Member States in their implementation effort. In implementing the roadmap, in the first instance, Member States will continue focusing on implementing the standards and recommended practices (SARPs) in Annex 9 – Facilitation and the related international specifications for machine readable travel documents contained in ICAO Doc 9303, Machine Readable Travel Documents.
Credible evidence of identity, involving the tracing, linkage and verification of identity against breeder documents, is essential to ensuring robust traveller identification for security and border control purposes. Experts in this basic element of the traveller identification will share their works and experiences in ensuring a robust identity management process.
Fraudulent activities present a serious challenge to ensuring effective and reliable traveller identification management. Technical experts will offer their recent operational experience to highlight current challenges and possible solutions relating to the different types of fraud related to travel documents, as well as involving application and issuance process.
Border management must deal with the increased flow of passengers and ensure security by identifying each individual as soon as possible in the process.
A key element in strengthening aviation security is to ensure that border inspection systems provide timely, secure and reliable links between travel documents, travellers and security information held in government databases. Expert will provide examples regarding these important element which aims to expedite the movement of legitimate travellers while identifying high-risk individuals.
Successful implementation of the ICAO TRIP Strategy is essential to helping Sates develop and maintain robust traveller identification management. This also enhances facilitation, which in turn supports wider economic development objectives. The rapid place and diversity of innovation is producing new possibilities for the way in which traveller identification can be managed. Experts will give their views on current and future initiatives and challenges.
CAA International (CAAi), the technical cooperation arm of the UK Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA), is taking steps to assist ICAO in ensuring No Country is Left Behind. The campaign highlights ICAO efforts to assist States with the implementation of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and to ensure that SARP implementation is harmonized around the world so that all States have access to safe, reliable air transport. As part of this initiative, ICAO provides direct assistance to developing countries to help generate the will needed to pool resources, participate in regional efforts, earmark voluntary funds, and to build capacities.
CAAi is supporting this important work. As part of the newly formed CAA International Group, CAAi is now a registered UK Social Enterprise, and has committed to invest its profits back into the global aviation community, to fund aviation regulatory improvement programmes that make the biggest positive impact on aviation. Social enterprises are business set up to change the world. Like traditional businesses, they aim to make a profit, but it’s what they do with that profit that sets them apart – reinvesting or donating it to creative positive social change.
Maria Rueda, Managing Director for CAAi said, “A lot has changed in aviation since CAAi’s inception over ten years ago. With more flights than ever leaving the UK and passenger demand expected to double over the next 20 years, it was important that CAAi evolved in order to make the biggest positive impact to global aviation. Becoming a social enterprise was the logical next step in our journey of raising aviation standards across the world”.
Matthew Margesson, Head of International Development for CAAi said, “It’s business as usual for CAAi, but with one key difference – our new profit-for-a-purpose business model. From today, a substantial proportion of our profits will be reinvested to deliver aviation improvement programmes and training across the world – and where it is needed most, benefiting people everywhere; those who choose to fly and those who do not”.
CAAi is already planning major investment in training scholarships for overseas aviation regulatory personnel, in partnership with ICAO. “Investing in the aviation leaders of tomorrow is crucial for a safe and secure future global aviation network”, Margesson explained. “With over 80 countries still below the global average of effective implementation of international aviation regulatory standards, CAAi is now much better placed to support ICAO’s No Country Left Behind initiative, EASA, other Agencies and State Authorities, working hand-in-hand to improve international aviation compliance across the world, protecting the travelling public from the UK and beyond”.
To mark the occasion, CAAi has also launched a new brand and website, to better reflect its CAA heritage and the collective spirit of raising aviation standards across the globe.
The President of the ICAO Council, Dr. Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu (below centre left), presented a Council President Certificate to Her Excellency Janice Miller (centre right), High Commissioner for Jamaica to Canada, in recognition of Jamaica’s exemplary aviation safety oversight improvements in 2016.
The event, which took place on 14 September 2017, was attended by Mr. Nari Williams-Singh, Director General of the Jamaica Civil Aviation Authority (JCAA), and Dr. Janine Dawkins, Chief Technical Director at Jamaica’s Ministry of Transport and Mining and a Member of the Board of the JCAA.
The ICAO Council established the Council President Certificates in 2016 in support of the Organization’s No Country Left Behind initiative. Their aim is to more publicly acknowledge global activities and commitments geared toward the Effective Implementation of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices.
The eligibility criteria used for this recognition are objective and transparent and are based on the results of ICAO’s Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme Continuous Monitoring Approach activities.
Before diving into the costs associated with training, we need to consider and address a few overarching training questions:
The Purpose of Training
We can agree that training is a service offered to organizations, groups and individuals that adds value to the recipient by shaping the knowledge, skills and attitudes both personally and collectively. Training empowers people and organizations so that they can be more efficient, effective and agile in their daily activities. Training ensures employees, managers and leaders are equipped to sustainably accomplish the organization’s mission on a daily basis, keeping things aligned and moving towards the vision. In the aviation industry, training is crucial for keeping up-to-date with global standards and regulations, particularly those pertaining to safety and security.
Aside from the direct benefits of training in enhancing skills and career development, and aligning staff with respect to the organization’s mission, there are other benefits, perhaps not as perceptible, that can be attributed to training. These include:
Training: A Multidimensional Undertaking
Once the value of a training activity is examined, we need to examine the different dimensions that can be associated with it.
If we look conceptually at the activities performed by a training provider to develop and deliver quality, relevant and up-to-date training, there are a number of tangible elements to be considered. The most relevant and significant ones are:
First and foremost, the planning process must include an organizational training needs assessment (which is often triggered by disparities in performance). This assessment identifies the gaps between existing and required competencies, and will ascertain whether the gaps can be closed by enhancing competencies and skills through training.
The outcomes of the training needs assessment will also guide the design of the training programme. The learning objectives must be defined, taking into account regulatory requirements, organizational needs and the criteria for evaluating the training outcomes. To ensure value is added, the needs of the organization, teams and individuals must be considered as they relate to the vision and mission of the organization.
Although this is the best practice, not all organizations follow this path. Training planning is often an ad hoc process resulting from specific events like: an individual’s request for career development training; new employees awaiting initial training and onboarding; or existing staff seeking re-certification in specific areas. Skipping or rushing through a systematic, carefully planned needs assessment may seem like a cost reduction strategy, but the inefficiencies that it will trigger down the road will quickly exceed the savings made. As a result, the training design, delivery, and outcome will undoubtedly be negatively impacted.
In the area of curriculum development, a sound pedagogical approach with a standardized design and development are key to a training organization’s survival. Training standards are established, design and delivery methodologies are approved, and course and exam design templates or blueprints are developed so the actual curriculum development and revision process can optimally unfold. This is followed by the involvement of the subject matter experts and instructional design specialists (in-house or contracted) who develop the content, align it with the course purpose, target audience, and learning objectives, and then format it to the intended method of delivery.
Regardless of the method of instruction, personnel with training management capabilities are critical to managing the logistics and administration of a course or programme, as well as to adequately assess the physical and technical infrastructure needed to deliver the training to the end user, the learner. On the technical side, a solid content management system (CMS) is required so key stakeholders can access, edit, archive, and retrieve the course material and keep track of versions. Furthermore, a robust learning management system (LMS) is necessary for supporting student registration, performance tracking, faculty enrollment, and other administrative tasks. We’ve confirmed the value of training for both the organization and the individual, and looked into the process of designing, developing and delivering training, let us now examine the costs inherent to these.
Evidently, all of the activities constitute costs to the training provider that can add up to very significant amounts. For example:
The costs to the beneficiary organization that should be budgeted for, are also substantial:
Budgeting for Training
We have shown that training in itself is a multidimensional service with various layers of costs linked to the development, the delivery and the assessment of it. To have quality training, no steps in the above described cycle should be skipped or set aside. To do otherwise might jeopardize the credibility and the relevancy of the training offering.
Training organizations need to properly plan their training activities way ahead of time. In doing so, they need to ensure that they get their fair share of the organization’s total budget to properly fund all of the necessary activities.
Are There Alternative Sources of Funding?
Sponsored or subsidized training is available through some (diminishing) alternative sources of funding:
The above list is not exhaustive, providing a few of the typical substitutes to existing commercial sources of funding.
How can we Measure the Value of Training?
A key factor an organization must consider when budgeting an expense is the quantifiable return on investment (ROI), for investing in training. But how can it be quantified and how do we ensure that organizational and training objectives have been met?
The process for evaluating training effectiveness is a substantial cost in itself and trainers have struggled for years with the concept of how to demonstrate this. Many organizations use the Kirkpatrick Model® which focuses on the return on expectations (ROE). Though this is achieved by building a ladder of expected results by identifying the leading indicators, it is not easy to put a monetary value against this.
What is the Way Forward?
There is no miracle recipe for continuously changing the way we do business to remain relevant and financially viable. There are true costs associated with developing and delivering quality training and the real value associated with receiving that training needs to be compensated financially, whether directly or indirectly.
A word on quality: the air transport industry has built its reputation by defining and upholding the highest standards in safety and security. These standards are withheld through human, physical and technological processes and systems that come at a cost. Everyone can agree that this cost is an investment which sustains the industry’s future. Surely the same could be said about training. As the core performance driver of the industry’s human element, training deserves all our attention, its fair share of resource allocation, and a commitment to quality that is equal to what we have invested to make our industry flourish.
About the Author
Guy Brazeau is presently Director, IATA Training and IATA Consulting and has more than 40 years of experience in aviation, 30 of which have been at the international level. Over the years, in addition to occupying a number of senior management positions within IATA, Mr. Brazeau has worked as a project director, lecturer and/or consultant in more than 50 countries on airport, airline and civil aviation-related projects. In addition, he was also recently a lecturer of the Airport Management course at one of Canada’s most prestigious educational institutions, McGill University.
Clúster Bioturbosina is a biojet consortium that began operations in 2016. It is part of the Mexican Innovation Center for Bioenergy that aims to create programmes for specific biofuels. It is supported by the Ministry of Energy and the National Council of Science and Technology.
Headed by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Research of San Luis Potosí, Clúster bioturbosina is comprised by 14 institutions: nine public national research centres, two international research centres, (Masdar Intitute and Joint Bioenergy Institute), two national companies (Aeromexico and QENER) and The Boeing Company. It’s research and development programme has been operational for four years. Clúster Bioturbosina’s main goal is to deploy the alternative aviation fuel supply chain in Mexico. Currently it has four research areas: biomass production, transformation processes; life cycle assessment (LCA) sustainability and market.
Interested in environment & sustainability? Visit the Clúster Bioturbosina website here. Also, make sure to check out the Second ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF/2) event that is now taking place in Mexico City, Mexico.
This October, inspired and determined minds are coming together to discuss the future of aviation alternative fuels. In the lead up to the Second ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF2), short videos were produced by ICAO to give a glimpse into the critical work being done to make the aviation sector greener and achieve carbon neutral growth.
Click the videos below see how people all over the world are working together to help stop climate change.
The Conference will build upon the results of the ICAO Alternative Fuels Seminar, held in February 2017, and of the First ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF), held in November 2009, which endorsed the use of sustainable alternative fuels for aviation as an important means of reducing aviation emissions and established the ICAO Global Framework for Aviation Alternative Fuels (GFAAF).
At the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly, Resolutions A39-2 (Consolidated statement of continuing ICAO policies and practices related to environmental protection – Climate change) reaffirmed the need for alternative fuels to be developed and deployed in an economically, socially and environmentally acceptable manner.
The 39th Session of the Assembly also welcomed the convening of this second ICAO Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels, with the aim of developing an ICAO Vision on Aviation Alternative Fuels. This Vision will encourage States to take action at national and international levels to further develop and deploy sustainable alternative fuels for aviation.
ICAO Secretary General Dr. Fang Liu and the Director of France’s École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile (ENAC), Mr. Marc Houalla, signed a Memorandum of Understanding today covering the development and delivery of new educational programmes and training activities within the framework of the ICAO TRAINAIR PLUS Programme.
The first outcome of the new partnership will be a Master’s Programme in Aviation Safety Management, which is expected to launch in 2018. Its objective will be to provide future Safety Management System (SMS) managers with the fundamentals needed to systematically monitor and improve aviation safety, based primarily on ICAO Annex 19 and related SMS provisions.
“This new Master’s Programme will be an important addition to ICAO’s expanding portfolio of training offerings,” highlighted Secretary General Dr. Fang Liu. “We are very committed to strengthening our collaboration with Members of our TRAINAIR PLUS Programme, and to raising awareness on the latest safety provisions for both current and next generation aviation professionals.”
ENAC Director Houalla reinforced this sentiment, adding that “ENAC being an Aviation University, working under the auspices of the French Civil Aviation Directorate, one of our missions is to improve air transport safety worldwide. That is why we are very proud, through this training agreement, to work hand in hand with ICAO to fulfill this task. This partnership will definitely help to develop safety dedicated aviation professionals worldwide as part of the NGAP programme in which ENAC is deeply involved.”
The new SMS Master’s Degree, composed of 12 modules as well as an internship, covers all aspects of SMS concepts, processes, methods and operational management. It is specifically designed to address both executive as well as technical levels.
The course modules will support a wide range of aviation stakeholders, including aircraft and airport operators, manufacturers, maintenance organizations, air navigation service providers, and training organizations.
The Master’s Programme will be delivered both at ENAC’s Toulouse location in France and globally via other TRAINAIR PLUS Members.
Addressing the 2017 Global Sustainable Aviation Summit hosted by the Air Transport Action Group yesterday, ICAO’s Council President, Dr. Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu, delivered a strong message on the need for coordinated aviation investment and development, while providing important updates on the progress ICAO is achieving on the new Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).
“Air transport’s role in economic development is more important today than ever before,” Dr. Aliu told the assembled aviation and sustainability leaders representing public and private sector organizations, “and the 17 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) help to concentrate government and development planners on the varied means by which access to safe, secure, efficient and affordable air services brings direct benefits to civil society and local and regional commerce.”
ICAO’s key messages reinforced the fact that sustainable aviation is a driver for economic development, trade and tourism, and instrumental in facilitating humanitarian and disaster response to crises and public health emergencies. Special reference was also made to countries in special situations, for example the small island developing States (SIDS) and landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) for which aviation represents a particularly essential lifeline to the world.
“A well-supported and ICAO compliant air transport sector will bring tremendous benefits to cities and societies wherever aircraft fly,” Dr. Aliu stressed, “but so too will underdevelopment and lack of compliance with ICAO Standards raise risks and barriers to governments’ objectives for successful sustainable development.”
Regarding the ICAO CORSIA, which was adopted at the UN Aviation agency’s 39th Assembly in October of last year, President Aliu noted that States representing almost 90% of international flight operations had already committed to participating in its first voluntary phase in 2021. He highlighted ICAO’s progress on the international standards needed to support it, the importance of the ICAO CO2 Estimation and Reporting Tool (CERT) to help simplify the CORSIA Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) procedures, and commented on the need for reliable credits to be purchased by international aviation, without the possibility of them being used for double counting by other sectors.
In addition to the ICAO President’s keynote address, officials from ICAO’s Aviation Partnerships for Sustainable Development (APSD) initiative were also on hand at the Summit to conduct a workshop aimed at supporting governments’ efforts to achieve the UN SDGs under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, as well as the Vienna Programme of Action and the Samoa Pathway.
Other ICAO updates to the ATAG event included the unprecedented progress achieved on the development and deployment of sustainable alternative fuels for aviation, and encouragement to attend ICAO’s upcoming second Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels to be held next week in Mexico City. Participants can register for the event here.